Brazilwood originally came from the heartwood of the Cæsalpinia echinata tree, a legume, which is native to the Brazilian coastline. This tree was harvested, then over harvested for the dyestuff that was commonly known as brazilian. Indeed, the country of Brazil gets its name from these trees.
Eastern Brazilwood, or sappanwood, comes from the Caesalpinia sappanplant, which is found throughout east Asia. It is also known as Indian redwood. The plant itself has antibacterial, antimicrobial and anticoagulant properties and is often used in folk medicine.
Sappanwood is very sensitive to pH, and as a result the colour can be manipulated from a bright orange to a berry red.